Biodiversity is the variety of animals, plants, fungi, and even microorganisms like bacteria that make up our natural world. Climate change and biodiversity are interconnected – climate change can amplify existing threats and increase biodiversity loss, with negative consequences for human well-being, but biodiversity, through the ecosystem services it supports, also makes an important contribution to both climate-change mitigation and adaptation.
Nature-based Solutions are “actions to protect, sustainably manage and restore natural or modified ecosystems that address societal challenges effectively and adaptively, simultaneously providing human well-being and biodiversity benefits”. Strong and healthy natural ecosystems help fight climate change and build resilience to climate impacts. To limit climate change we must both decarbonise our economy and draw down carbon from the atmosphere using nature-based solutions such as conserving and restoring forests and grasslands.
In 2015 there was a historic deal between 195 countries to address climate change. The Paris Agreement aims to keep global warming to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to 1.5°C. It also highlights the importance of adaptation and international finance. In aggregate, country pledges to cut emissions (known as Nationally Determined Contributions or NDCs) is projected to lead to global warming of around 3°C.
Refers to the balance between the amount of greenhouse gas produced and the amount removed from the atmosphere. We reach a Net Zero when the amount we add is no more than the amount taken away.
Nature-positive is defined as halting and reversing nature loss, measured from 2020 levels, by increasing the health, abundance, diversity, and resilience of species, populations, and ecosystems so that by 2030 nature is visibly and measurably on the path of recovery.
WHAT ARE TRANSITION PLANS?
CDP defines a climate transition as “a time-bound action plan that clearly outlines how an organisation will pivot its existing assets, operations, and entire business model towards a trajectory that aligns with the latest and most ambitious climate science recommendations.” A transition plan does not necessarily have to address climate change alone, it could also include wider sustainability actions and goals e.g. related to nature or just transition.
WHAT IS A NET ZERO INVESTMENT PLAN?
A Net Zero Investment Plan would set out a comprehensive financing strategy to assess, track, and scale-up (largely) private finance in the net zero transition, consistent with the Paris Agreement, while delivering wider benefits such as improved energy security and alleviating the rising cost of living.
BES = Biodiversity and Ecosystems services
CBD = Convention on Biological Diversity
ESG = Environmental, Social and Governance
G20 = Group of Twenty
GBF = Global Biodiversity Framework
IEA = International Energy Agency
IPCC = Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
MMMM = Make My Money Matter (greening your pension)
OECD = Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
SBT for FIs = Science Based Targets for financial institutions
SBTi = Science Based Targets initiative (SBT = Science Based Targets)
UNGA = United Nation General Assembly